[which] contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects.”
lets get some refresh on what vitamins are. Also as a side note while we condone plant based eating we are not going to ignore the sources of vitamins that are animal based as if they do not exist. This isn’t condoning or slanting in regards to the data itself.
They’re complex compounds that are found in foods, relatively small amounts. These compounds are utterly essential for ideal functioning of all the processes of the body. During exercise the activity levels of many of these physiological processes are increased greatly and an adequate source of vitamins existing will potentially allow these processes to occur at their best.
While these micronutrients are detrimental they are not sources of energy, they don’t have caloric value and they make no significant contribution to the body structure, as do some minerals and proteins.
Vitamins are precisely what they are categorized as in health stores. They are supplements. They are meant to supplement your overall health. A supplement will not make up for a poorly executed diet that is filled with low nutrient useful foods. You can’t toss back a couple grape Fred Flintstones, then go on to eat fried mayonnaise balls at the fair, and think you’re covered nutritionally.
Additionally when prompted on the subject of multivitamins, JoAnn Manson, Chief, division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and also Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical stated, “Most people do not need multivitamins, a small percentage of the population actually may benefit for various reasons, their diets are poorly balanced or they may have some malabsorption, needs some extra fat soluble vitamins particularly Vitamin D.” the full exchange can be seen here.
But she further concluded that there just are insignificant amounts of data on the matter yet. So especially understanding that the verdict is not in, especially on its longevity prevention on cancer and cardiovascular benefits, a safely formulated multivitamin can’t hurt you.
When should you take a multivitamin?
If someone who partakes in the average westernized diet, high processed and refined foods, supplementation could help but it isn’t going to be as beneficial as changing your eating patterns. If you do want to be on the safe side and still supplement, you need to be weary of “mega dosing” these small vitamins and minerals. A lot of varied supplements have very high amounts of each vitamin that can be dangerous to your health. Most manufacturers disregard guidelines put on by the government’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans (www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines). They are much more likely to supplement with cost effective vitamins, for example vitamin k is very expensive to put in formulas so its less likely to have it but , and build formulations that sell best from a marketing standpoint, you can easily find marketing terms such as “high in vitamin C!”
Megadosing- taking a dose of nutrient that is ten or more times greater than the recommended amount.
If you are eating colorful fruits, leafy greens, and colorful vegetables it is very possible to eat to meet all the daily recommendations. But you should be weary of using the approach of pills, capsules, and powders as a sniper shot to your deficiencies. Eating these nutrient dense foods hold more than just the micronutrients comparable to the supplements, they hold many other beneficial compounds, such as phytochemicals and many other beneficial dietary variables that interact together than supplementation of pure vitamins and minerals.
When are vitamins generally advised?
The elderly may benefit from having vitamins due to a higher need of a RDA. Vitamins such as B6, D, and B12 because of the difficulty in absorbing the natural forms.
Individuals who are highly active and do not eat enough to maintain body weight during periods of high exertion and energy expenditure.
Individuals who consume enough energy but choose poor nutrient quality foods. If one eats mainly high processed foods or if there is restriction on a certain food group, vitamins may be considered necessary.
Most people don’t consume an optimal amount of vitamins by diet alone each and every day, but repercussions of these inadequate intakes are rare, Americans rarely become deficient in vitamins. So it appears noteworthy that all adults could take a vitamin supplement, but it is not necessary. A general name brand multivitamin, not a specific vitamin in large amounts, which can be dangerous. Always ask your doctor if you want to be certain.
Are organic foods more nutritious than regular grown foods? If I get organic will I be getting more of these essential compounds?
This is up for high debate because there is serious money and brand loyalty (consumers who pride themselves on purchasing it) on the line. According to the Mayo Clinic and European health professionals agree as well. Another meta-analysis published int the Annals of Internal Medicine concluded, there has been no deciding evidence shows that organic food is more better or more nutritious than food grown conventionally.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition put forth a study with similar findings, they reviewed 162 scientific papers published in relation to the nutritional density of organic vs conventional foods. This whole review perused most of the research for the past 50 years. A conclusion made by the director of the study was “ Our review indicates that there is currently no evidence to support the selection of organically over conventionally-produced on the basis of nutritional superiority.
Different soluble vitamins
Water soluble vitamins – Found in a variety of foods, including fruits, whole grains, dairy, meats, and vegetables. They’re absorbed easily through the digestive tract and into the bloodstream, then travel to designated cells in need for them. Vitamins that are soluble in water.
Fat soluble vitamins – Found in fatty portions of foods. And are absorbed along with dietary fat. Fat containing foods are sources of one or more fat soluble vitamins.
These compounds are a diverse class of 13 known specific nutrients that are involved in almost every process metabolically. Small amounts are essential in our daily diet, so they’re categorized as micronutrients
Even with this term micro, but they are one of our most critical nutrients.
With the absence of these micronutrients warning signs can be shown within 2-4 weeks for numerous of the vitamins, and major devastating diseases may happen with lengthy deficiencies.
Major deficiencies are infrequent in industrialized countries. But it doesn’t mean that individuals are not optimizing the potential they could be having with apt vitamin intake.
These are vitamins that can’t be made or synthesized in the body
Most vitamins must be received from food we ingest many of them may be formed in the body from other eaten nutrients, from our gut bacteria, to the sun’s rays.
Fat soluble vitamins
Reccomneded daily intake
Foods that contain Vitamin A
Carotenoids in plant foods: carrots, green leafy vegetables, sweet potatoes, fortified margarine from vegetable oils. Yellow orange vegetables, as in some fruits such as oranges, limes, pineapples, prunes, collards, and cantaloupes. one medium carrot will supply nearly 200 percent of the RDA
Is essential for maintenance of the eptithelial cells, those cells covering the outside of the body and lining the bodycavities. It is also essential for proper visual function, such as night vision and perifpheral vision, Vitamin A also has a variety of other physiological roles in the bdy that are not well understood.
Impaired growth, intestinal infections, night blindness, xeropthalmia
This fat soluble vitamin, it is also known as its animal derivative retinol. Vitamin A is available in 2 forms in the human diet: preformed vitamin A (retinol and its esterified form, retinyl ester) and provitamin A carotenoids. Preformed vitamin A is delivered in foods from sources of animal foods, including dairy products, fish, and meat . One of the most crucial provitamin A carotenoid is beta-carotene. There are other provitamin A carotenoids are alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin. The body converts these plant pigments into vitamin A as well.
Reccomneded daily intake
1500 to 2000 IU
Foods that contain Vitamin D
Shitake mushrooms, Fortified foods with vitamin D as well as the action of sunlight on the skin. Based on current data many health professionals are recommending an intake of 1,000 – 2,0000 IU of vitamin D daily for most individuals. Such an amount may be obtained in the diet, but you select foods rich in vitamin D, such as fatty fish and vitamin – D – fortified products like cereals, orange juice, milk etc.
Check food labels for vitamin D content, preferably D3.
Light skinned person out in the sun in a bathing suit, with no sunscreen, can make 20,000 to 30,000 IU
However, African Americans may need up to ten times as much sunlight as Caucasians to make similar amounts of Vitamin D.
Act as a hormone to increase intestinal absorption of calcium and promote bone and tooth formation
This aids bone health, physical performance, prevents cancer, diabetes, kidney stones and other adverse effects.
Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
Foods that contain Vitamin E
Its found mostly in the small fat content in several vegetables. The most common dietary sources are polyunsaturated vegetable oils, such as corn, soybean, and safflower oils, and margarines made from these oils; One tablespoon holds 3-5 IU. The total of different tocopherols and tocotrienols varies among different oils. Other good sources of vitamin E include fortified ready-to-eat cereals, whole grain products, wheat germ oil.
Vegetable oil, green leafy vegetables, wheat germ, whole grain products, egg yolks
An ounce of a fortified cereal may include around 20-45 IU of vitamin E, while a tablespoon of wheat germ oil contains around 40 IU.
Functions as antioxidant to protect cell membranes from destruction of oxidation
Very rare but deficiencies disruption of red blood cell membranes, anemia.
It is a complex family of 8 compounds including tocopherols. The 2 major forms are RRR-alpha-tocopherol and RRR-gama-tocopherol. Alpha-tocopherol alone is the basis for the RDA and it is the most common form in the bloodstream and dietary supplements. You may see it listed as D-alpha-tocopherol (natural form) or dl-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic)
Recommended daily intake
120 mcg men
90 mcg women
Foods that contain Vitamin K
Spinach, cauliflower, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, formation in the human intestine by bacteria, egg, pork and beef liver
Essential for blood coagulation
Increased bleeding and hemorrhage
Water soluble vitamins
Thiamin (vitamin B1)
Recommended daily intake
1.2 mg men 1.1 mg women
Foods that contain Vitamin B1
Whole grain products, enriched breads and cereals, legumes, pork lean meat, liver
Thiamin has a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose. Thiamin is essential for functioning of the nervous system and deprivation of energy from glycogen in the muscles.
Supplementation is important for neurological functions. It has been proposed that it is so potent it improves pistol shooting and accuracy.
Riboflavin (vitamin b2)
RDA 1.3 mg men
1.1 mg women
serves as a co-enzyme for energy production from carbohydrates, essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system
Poor appetite, apathy, mental depression, pain in calf muscles, beriberi
Men 16 mg
Women 14 mg
Functions as a coenzyme involved in energy production from carbohydrates and fats, also maintains healthy skin
Dermatitis, cracks at the corns of the mouth, sores on tongue, damage to the cornea
Foods that contain Niacin
Whole grain products, beans, lean meats, fish, poultry
Recommneded daily intake
What foods contain Vitamin B6
Protein foods; legumes, brown rice, green leafy vegetables, baked potatoes, bananas, lean meats, fish, poultry, liver
A coenzyme in protein metabolism. It is necessary for formation of hemoglobin and red blood cesll. It is also needed for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
Nervous irritability convulsions, dermatitis, sores on tongue, anemia
Vitamin B 12
What foods contain vitamin B12
Fortified foods with vitamin B12 meat, fish, poultry, milk, eggs
Works as a coenzyme for formation of DNA, RBC development, and maintenance of nerve tissue
Vegans who abstain from foods fortified with vitamin b12 may need to take sthis specific vitamin supplement.
Pernicious anemia, nerve damage, resulting in paralysis
Recommended daily intake
400 DFE (dietary folate equivalents)
What food contains folate?
Green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, fortified cereals, liver.
Functions as coenzyme for DNA formation and RBC development
Fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, diarrhea, anemia neural tube defects in newborns
Recommended daily intake
What foods contain biotin?
Most vegetables, whole grain products, egg yolk, milk, legumes, meats
Functions as coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Research also suggests gene expression, synthesis, of glucose and fatty acids, it may have some implications relative to endurance performance.
Deficiency symptoms fatigue, nausea, skin rashes
Recommended daily intake
Where can you get them?
Its found in all natural plant and animal products, milk, yeasts, liver, eggs, found in most foods as part of cell membranes
Pantothenic acid functions unctions as a precursor for lecithin, a phospholipid in cell membranes.
Deficiency symptoms very RARE
Produced only clinically; fatigue, loss of appetite, depression
Recommended daily intake
550 mg men
425 mg women
Foods that contain choline
It is found in most foods, particularly as lecithin (phosphotidylcholine) in animal foods and free choline in plants, nuts, seeds, and wheat germ.
Very rare but liver damage can occur
Recommended daily intake
90 mg men
75 mg women
What foods contain Vitamin C?
Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, berries, melons, grapefruit, salad greens, peppers, strawberries, potatoes, tomatoes. One orange contains the recommended daily amount.
This vitamin forms collagen essential for connective tissue development, it also aids in absorption of iron, it additionally helps form epinephrine. It also serves as antioxidant.
Symptomatic results of vitamin C deficiency is weakness, rough skin, slow wound healing, bleeding gums, anemia, and scurvy.
In most respects the best way to ensure is to eat a balanced diet with nutrient dense foods. The foods you choose should be out of a vast variety of selections. Eating an assortment of different foods is the most prudent strategy because it allows you to ingest many vitamins and minerals. These two compounds predominately work hand in hand with metabolism. Such as calcium and vitamin D, vitamin B6 and magnesium, and vitamin E and selenium. vita
Do foods rich in vitamins mostly antioxidant ones, help deter disease?
This is typically studied through epidemiological research, which isn’t as objective as experimental. But it can be useful tool to assess the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases over the course of many years. Antioxidants do battle against free radicals
Taking in fruits and vegetables with antioxidants and other micronutrients undoubtedly do have many health benefits. These could potentially be cancer risk prevention and cardiovascular disease.
Minerals or inorganic substances, that of calcium, zinc, and iron. All minerals are categorized as elements. They are already in the chemical form that is most simplest.
Those are the body needs in amounts of atleast 100 mg per day. These minerals are found in the body in amounts of 5 g or higher. There are seven major ones
Minerals – attributes and functions, Recommended daily intake
Sulfur – component of certain B-vitamins and amino acids, Acid- base balance, plays role in detox of the liver
Calcium – Primary component of bone, Acid base balance, transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction
RDA: all adults from 19-30 1000mg/day and men aged 51-70
Women aged 51-70 and adults aged >70 1200 mg/day
Chloride – fluid balance, acid base balance, transmission of nerve impulsescomponent of stomach acid HCI, and is antibacterial RDA: 2.3g/day
Potassium – fluid balance, acid base balance, transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction 4.7 g/day
Sodium – fluid balance, acid base balance, transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction RDA 1.5 g/day
Phosphorus – fluid balance, bone formation, component of ATP, which provides energy for our body RDA 700mg/day
Magnesium – Component of bone muscle contraction assists more than 300 eznyme systems
RDA for magnesium
Men aged 19-30 400 mg/day
Men aged 30 420mg/ day
Women 19-30 310mg/ day
women 31 and above 320 mg/day
These are those the body requires in amounts less than 100 mg per day. Theyre found in the body as well but in amounts less than 5 g.
The top 8 trace minerals essential for health are
Selenium – use for carbohydrate and fat metabolism
Nuts, shellfish, whole grains, fish, poultry
Fluoride – used for maintenance of healthy teeth and bones.
Men: 4 mg/day
Seafood, legumes, whole grains, drinking water
Iodine -used for thyroid function including synthesis, reproduction and growth, also sued for temperature regulation
Iodized salt, saltwater seafood
Chromium – Metabolism of DNA and RNA, also used for glucose transport, additionally used for immune function and growth
Men 19-50 35hg/day
Men aged >50 30hg/day
Women 19-50 25Hg/day
Women >50 20hg/day
Whole grains, brewer’s yeast
Manganese – Assists many enzyme systems, also used in synthesis of protein found in bone and cartilage
Whole grains, tea, leafy vegetables, nuts
Iron – component of hemoglobin in blood cells, assists in many enzyme systems
Adult men 8mg/day
Women aged 19-50 18mg/day
Women >50 8mg/day
Fortified cereals, legumes, spinach, meat, fish, poultry
Zinc – assist in more than 100 enzyme systems immune system function growth and sexual maturation, gene regulation
Fortified cereals, legumes, spinach, meat, fish, poultry
Copper – assists in many enzyme systems iron transport
Nuts, legumes, shellfish
Minerals Naturally occurring substances that are inorganic that are not changed by natural or body processes, including metabolic digestion.
Major Minerals. Minerals we need to consume in lare amounts, at least 100mg per day and the total amount present in the body is 5g
Trace minerals we need to consume in amounts less than 100 mg per day and of which the total amount present in the body is less than 5 g.
Enriching a low quality and low nutrient food with a few vitamins and minerals does not make it a health food.
They can play a role in promoting good health in populations such as women who are pregnant, children with poor eating habits, and people with chronic illnesses
Minerals are different in comparison to most vitamins, minerals are only known as their chemical name. Existence of minerals does vary though, for example a label on a supplement may be labeled calcium citrate or calcium gluconate. These are different chemical compounds but still containing the same mineral elementally. These different compounds may affect the absorption of them because the way in which calcium is in the formulation.
Are supplements healthful sources of vitamins?
They’re used just as tools to help your recommended daily intake but sometimes they are not formulated for that strategy. They may be formulated sometimes for flashy ploys and high dosages that get your attention rather than with regarding your health. Millions of years’ humans have not taken supplements it is only about the past 70 years this has occurred. Your health mostly depends on the usefulness of micronutrients the foods contain and the diversity of vegetables and fruits you eat.
The usefulness of the vitamins is referring to the effectiveness the body processes it. The calcium in milk is easily absorbed, but the iron and calcium in spinach are poorly absorbed. This is due to the presence of certain minerals alongside other ones. They inhibit the processes the mineral would typically be a part of. These minerals are sometimes referred to as antagonists.Most minerals are better absorbed from food sources than they are from supplements. The exception of this rule may be calcium citrate malate, used in calcium fortified juices. So diversifying how you eat and getting different foods in various combinations may be an approach to consider.
Make sure YOU aren’t the one hurting your micronutrients
You can diligently set up your intake and map out all of which you will eat, but you can still have insufficient intake for numerous reasons.
Poor culinary and storage practices that can diminish the nutritional value of foods
When food is processed many of these integral compounds are stripped away. Fruit once harvested begins to lose the amount of vitamins it previously had due to degradation, improper preparation such as overcooking and oxidizing(burning) all the nutrients out.
How to retain the most vitamins in foods as possible
Use very little water when rinsing, storing, or cooking foods to minimize the loss of water soluble vitamins. For the most preservation of these vitamins, steam or microwave
Avoid high temperatures for long time periods to max preservation of vitamin c, riboflavin, thiamin.
Store foods in sealed containers, air exposure dramatically reduces the amount of vitamins K, C, E, A as well as B. Eat raw fruits and vegetables as fast as possible when they’ve been prepared.
Don’t sacrifice nutrient value for appearance. The addition of baking soda to certain vegetables enhances their color, it additionally increases the pH of the cooking water (making it more alkaline), destroying riboflavin, vitamin K, vitamin C, and thiamin.
How to pick vitamins that are good quality and safe.
Firstly, check the DV the daily value. The quantity of minerals and vitamins listed on food and dietary supplement labels are based upon the DV for each nutrient. For example, Vitamin C recommendations are 60 mg for the DV but the RDA amount today is 90 milligrams. The daily value has not been changed since the 1970’s but the recommended daily amounts have. So be leery and conscientious of these differences when reading labels, as well as your already daily intake of all these vitamins through food, you can have too much of these compounds and they can cause problems. Such as high dosages of vitamin E can cause an increase in likelihood of all cause mortality or “death”.
Be leery of bargain basement brands, such as those found in discount stores. Tests by the Consumer Union have revealed that over 50% of brands did not hold the promoted amount of vitamins and minerals stated on the label. Most companies that market vitamins buy their vitamins from the same manufactory so the fillings are parallel just the formulations vary. Look for USP labels (United States Pharmaceuticals) certifications
The science of nutrition is ever and ever in a state of expansion, and the current understanding of vitamins and minerals will undoubtedly change within the next decade with more information, studies, trials, and advances in technology.
If you want to really enhance your micronutrient intake to make sure definitively you are getting all your requirements, you can always take a blood test to truly see a full comprehensive breakdown of what you need or are deficient in. Meet with a dietitian or your physician and really break them down and delegate what you are needing each and everyday to be the best possible you and have you running the most optimal.
Prescription is easier than proscription
It is really enticing for the idea of multivitamins, simply take a pill and be a healthier you! It is much easier taking a pill everyday than dodging tasty junk food, and replace the bad dietary patterns with eating more nutritious food.
The effects of multivitamins and minerals may long term slightly raise the risk of cardiovascular diseases or cancer , in the short run they produce little harm or no harm, and thus negative consequences will not be discernible by individuals taking them.
These supplements do do what they’re designed for, they do raise the levels of these vitamins and minerals inside your body BUT having those levels raised are not always beneficial, and some experts arent sure it has any effect on the person’s health or not. The benefits of increased nutrient intake and attempting to meet every daily requirement through taking a multivitamin has potential adverse effects also due to this uncertainty high intake. First and foremost always consult a your doctor. If you want to learn about how to have a healthy diet or life and need help approaching it in a more long term oriented manner please check out with simply starting with a walk here. If you really want long lasting change and want to commit check out how beneficial weight training and resistance training is here
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